1989. Ph.D., Communications, University of Washington, 1989. Committee Chairpersons: William E. Ames and Don R. Pember. Dissertation title: “The Battle for America’s Ears and Minds: The Debate Over the Control and Structure of American Radio Broadcasting, l930-l935.”
1986. M.A., Communications, University of Washington, l986. Committee Chairperson: William E. Ames. Masters thesis: “Sport, Mass Media and Monopoly Capital: Toward a Reinterpretation of the l920s and Beyond.”
1977. B.A., Economics and History, The Evergreen State College, Olympia, WA.